ADHD

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

The National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) defines attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a brain disorder marked by an ongoing pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that interferes with functioning or development.

Diagnosis of ADHD requires a comprehensive evaluation by a licensed clinician, such as a pediatrician, psychologist, or psychiatrist with expertise in ADHD.

 

For a person to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, the symptoms of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity must be chronic or long-lasting, impair the person’s functioning, and cause the person to fall behind normal development for his or her age.

ADHD SYMPTOMS

There is no single test used to diagnose ADHD. Experts diagnose ADHD after a person has shown some or all of the symptoms on a regular basis for more than six months and in more than one setting. Like most diagnoses, many tools and assessments are needed to make the most accurate conclusion.

Inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity are the key behaviors of ADHD. Some people with ADHD only have problems with one of the behaviors, while others have both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity. It is normal to have some inattention, unfocused motor activity, and impulsivity, but for people with ADHD, these behaviors are more severe, occur more often, and interfere with or reduce the quality of how they function socially, at school, or in a job. ADHD symptoms can also change over time as a person ages.

Inattention Symptoms

An inattentive person wanders off task, lacks persistence, has difficulty sustaining focus, and is disorganized; and these problems are not due to defiance or lack of comprehension.

  • Overlook or miss details, make careless mistakes in schoolwork, at work, or during other activities

  • Have problems sustaining attention in tasks or play, including conversations, lectures, or lengthy reading​

  • Not follow through on instructions and fail to finish schoolwork, chores, or duties in the workplace or start tasks but quickly lose focus and get easily sidetracked

  • Have problems organizing tasks and activities, such as what to do in sequence, keeping materials and belongings in order, having messy work and poor time management, and failing to meet deadlines

  • Not seem to listen when spoken to directly

  • Avoid or dislike tasks that require sustained mental effort, such as schoolwork or homework, or for teens and older adults, preparing reports, completing forms or reviewing lengthy papers

  • Lose things necessary for tasks or activities, such as school supplies, pencils, books, tools, wallets, keys, paperwork, eyeglasses, and cell phones

  • Be easily distracted by unrelated thoughts or stimuli

  • Be forgetful in daily activities, such as chores, errands, returning calls, and keeping appointments

Hyperactivity-Impulsivity Symptoms

A hyperactive person seems to move about constantly, including in situations in which it is not appropriate; or excessively fidgets, taps, or talks. In adults, it may be extreme restlessness or wearing others out with constant activity. An impulsive person makes hasty actions that occur at the moment without first thinking about them and that may have a high potential for harm, or a desire for immediate rewards or inability to delay gratification. They may be socially intrusive and excessively interrupt others or make important decisions without considering the long-term consequences.

  • Talk nonstop​​

  • Fidget and squirm in their seats​

  • Have trouble waiting for his or her turn​

  • Blurt out an answer before a question has been completed, finish other people’s sentences, or speak without waiting for a turn in the conversation​

  • Interrupt or intrude on others, for example in conversations, games, or activities

  • Leave their seats in situations when staying seated is expected, such as in the classroom or in the office​

  • Run or dash around or climb in situations where it is inappropriate or, in teens and adults, often feel restless​

  • Be unable to play or engage in hobbies quietly​

  • Be constantly in motion or “on the go,” or act as if “driven by a motor”